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https://www.kaskus.co.id/thread/59106ba3ddd77071548b4571/pertempuran-mutah629m-atau-5jumadil-awal8-hijriah

Pertempuran Mu'tah(629 M atau 5 Jumadil Awal 8 Hijriah)Past Hot Thread

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Assalamualaikum Wr.Wb dan Selamat pagi/siang/sore/malam kepada kaskuser yang membaca thread ini.

Pada thread ini, Ane masih membahas mengenai Pertempuran Mu'tah yang akan dijelaskan di bawah.

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Sekilas info

Tanggal : 629 M atau 5Jumadil Awal 8H
Lokasi. : Karak, Yordania
Hasil. : Ibnu Ishaq dan Ibnu Hisyam melaporkan imbang untuk kedua belah pihak, baik Muslim maupun Romawi. Sedangkan Ibnu Katsir melaporkan kemenangan Muslim.

Pihak yang terlibat :Arab Muslim|Kekaisaran Romawi Timur (Bizantium)
Arab Kristen

Komandan :
Zaid bin Haritsah,
Ja'far bin Abu Thalib,
Abdullah bin Rawahah
|
Heraclius,
Theodorus,
Syurahbil bin ‘Amr al-Ghassani,
Malik bin Zafilah

Kekuatan :
Muslim 3,000 (Ibnu Qayyim dan Ibnu Hajar)
Romawi 200,000 (sumber Muslim)

Korban :
Muslim 12 (sumber Muslim, mungkin lebih) Romawi 20,000 (sumber Muslim, mungkin kurang)


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Pertempuran Mu'tah(629 M atau 5 Jumadil Awal 8 Hijriah)

Pertempuran Mu'tah (bahasa Arab: معركة مؤتة, غزوة مؤتة) terjadi pada 629 M atau 5 Jumadil Awal 8 Hijriah), dekat kampung yang bernama Mu'tah, di sebelah timur Sungai Yordan dan Al Karak, antara pasukan Khulafaur Rasyidin yang dikirim oleh NabiMuhammad dan tentara Kekaisaran Romawi Timur (Bashra).


Pertempuran Mu'tah(629 M atau 5 Jumadil Awal 8 Hijriah)






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Latar Belakang

Setelah Perjanjian Hudaibiyyah disepakati, Rasullulah mengirimkan surat-surat dakwah sekaligus berdiplomasi kepada para penguasa negeri yg berbatasan dengan jazirah arab, termasuk kepada Heraklius. Pada Tahun 7 hijriah atau 628 AD, Rasulullah menugaskan al-Harits bin ‘Umair untuk mengirimkan surat dakwah kepada Gubernur Syam (Irak) bernama Hanits bin Abi Syamr Al-Ghassani yg baru diangkat oleh Kekaisaran Romawi. Dalam Perjalanan, di daerah sekitar Mut'ah, al-Harits bin ‘Umair dicegat dan dibunuh oleh penguasa setempat bernama Syurahbil bin ‘Amr al-Ghassani pemimpin dari suku Ghassaniyah (Pada waktu itu yang berkuasa di wilayah Palestina dan sekitarnya). Dan Pada tahun yg sama Utusan Rasulullah pada Banu Sulayman dan Dhat al Talh daerah di sekitar negeri Syam (Irak) juga dibunuh oleh penguasa sekitar.Sebelumnya, tidak pernah seorang utusan dari Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam dibunuh dalam misinya.

Sedangkan menurut sumber-sumber Barat modern, pertempuran ini adalah upaya penaklukan yang gagal terhadap bangsa Arab di sebelah timur Sungai Jordan. Tentunya hal ini dikritisi sebab tidak mampu menjelaskan secara logis latar belakang pertempuran, antara pasukan muslim yg bahkan belum mempersatukan jazirah Arab dan belum menguasai Makkah yang berani menentang kekuasaan bangsa adidaya Romawi di daerah utara yang sangat jauh dari Madinah.



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Pertempuran

Pertempuran Mu'tah(629 M atau 5 Jumadil Awal 8 Hijriah)

Sebelum pasukan islam berangkat untuk menegakkan panji La ilaha Illallah, Rasulullah shalallahu ‘alaihi wassalam telah menunjuk tiga orang sahabat sekaligus mengemban amanah komanda secara bergantian bila komandan sebelumnya gugur dalam tugas di medan peperangan hingga mengakibatkan tidak dapat meneruskan kepemimpinan. Sebuah keputusan yang belum pernah dia lakukan sebelumnya. Mereka itu adalah Ja'far bin Abi Thalib, Zaid bin Haritsah (berasal dari kaum muhajirin) dan seorang sahabat dari Anshar, Abdullah bin Rawahah, penyair Rasulullah shalallahu ‘alaihi wassalam.

Singkatnya, pasukan islam yang berjumlah 3000 personel diberangkatkan. Ketika mereka sampai di daerah Ma’an, terdengar berita bahwa Heraklius mempersiapkan 100 ribu pasukannya. Selain itu, kaum Nasrani dari beberapa suku Arab pun telah siap dengan jumlah yang sama. Mendengar kabar yang demikian, sebagian sahabat radhiyallahu ‘anhum mengusulkan supaya meminta bantuan pasukan kepada Rasulullah atau dia memutuskan suatu perintah.

‘Abdullah bin Rawanah radhiyallahu ‘anhu lantas mengobarkan semangat juang para sahabat radhiyallahu ‘anhum pada waktu itu dengan perkataannya , “Demi Allah, sesungguhnya perkata yang kalian tidak sukai ini adalah perkata yang kamu keluar mencarinya, yaitu syahadah (gugur dimedan perang dijalan Allah Azza wa Jalla). Kita itu tidak berjuang karena karena jumlah pasukan atau kekuatan. Kita berjuang untuk agama ini yang Allah Azza wa Jalla telah memuliakan kita dengannya. Bergeraklah. Hanya ada salah satu dari dua kebaikan : kemenangan atau gugur (syahid) di medan perang.”

Orang-orang menanggapi dengan berkata, “ Demi Allah, Ibnu Rawanah berkata benar”.

Zaid bin Haritsah radhiyallahu ‘anhu, panglima pertama yang ditunjuk Rasulullah shalallahu ‘alaihi wassalam, kemudian membawa pasukan ke wilayah Mu’tah. Dua pasukan berhadapan dengan sengit. Komandan pertama ini menebasi anak panah-anak panah pasukan musuh sampai akhirnay tewas terbunuh di jalan Allah Azza wa Jalla.


Pertempuran Mu'tah(629 M atau 5 Jumadil Awal 8 Hijriah)


Bendera pun beralih ke tangan Ja’far bin Abi Thalib radhiyallahu ‘anhu. Sepupu Rasulullah shalallahu ‘alaihi wassalam ini berperang sampai tangan kanannya putus. Bendera dia pegangi dengan tangan kiri, dan akhirnya putus juga oleh tangan musuh. Dalam kondisi demikian, semangat dia tak mengenal surut, saat tetap berusaha mempertahankan bendera dengan cara memeluknya sampai dia gugur oleh senjata lawan. Berdasarkan keterangan Ibnu ‘Umar radhiyallahu ‘anhu, salah seorang saksi mata yang ikut serta dalam perang itu, terdapat tidakkurang 90 luka di bagian tubuh depan dia baik akibat tusukan pedang dan maupun anak panah.

Giliran ‘Abdullah bin Rawanah radhiyallahu ‘anhu pun datang. Setelah menerjang musuh, ajal pun memjemput dia di medan peperangan.

Tsabit bin Arqam radhiyallahu ‘anhu mengambil bendera yang telah tak bertuan itu dan berteriak memanggil para Sahabat Nabi agar menentukan pengganti yang memimpin kaum muslimin. Maka, pilihan mereka jatuh pada Khalid bin Walid radhiyallahu ‘anhu. Dengan kecerdikan dan kecemerlangan siasat dan strategi – setelah taufik dari Allah Azza wa Jalla – kaum muslimin berhasil memukul Romawi hingga mengalami kerugian yang banyak.


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Setelah Perang
Menyaksikan peperangan yang tidak seimbang antara kaum muslimin dengan kaum kuffar, yang merupakan pasukan aliansi antara kaum Nashara Romawi dan Nashara Arab, secara logis, kekalahan bakal di alami oleh para sahabat Rasulullah shalallahu ‘alaihi wassalam.

Imam Ibnu Katsir rahimahullah mengungkapkan ketakjubannya terhadap kekuasaan Allah Azza wa Jalla melalui hasil peperangan yang berakhir dengan kemenangan kaum muslimin dengan berkata : “Ini kejadian yang menakjubkan sekali. Dua pasukan bertarung, saling bermusuhan dalam agama. Pihak pertama pasukan yang berjuang dijalan Allah Azza wa Jalla, dengan kekuatan 3000 orang. Dan pihak lainnya, pasukan kafir yang berjumlah 200 ribu pasukan. 100 ribu orang dari Romawi dan 100 ribu orang dari Nashara Arab. Mereka saling bertarung dan menyerang. Meski demikian sengitnya, hanya 12 orang yang terbunuh dari pasukan kaum muslimin. Padahal, jumlah korban tewas dari kaum musyirikin sangat banyak”.

Allah Azza wa Jalla berfirman :

“Orang-orang yang menyakini bahwa mereka akan menemui Allah berkata, “Berapa banyak terjadi golongan yang sedikit dapat mengalahkan golongan yang banyak dengan izin Allah? Dan Allah beserta orang-orang yang sabar”. (Al-Baqarah 2:249)”

Para ulama sejarah tidak bersepakat pada satu kata mengenai jumlah syuhada Mu’tah. Namun, yang jelas jumlah mereka tidak banyak. Hanya berkisar pada angka belasan, menurut hitungan yang terbanyak. Padahal, peperangan Mu’tah sangat sengit. Ini dapat dibuktikan bahwa Khalid bin Walid rahimahullah menghabiskan 9 pucuk pedang dalam perang tersebut. Hanya satu pedang yang tersisa, hasil buatan Yaman.

Khalid rahimahullah berkata, “Telah patah Sembilan pedang ditanganku, tidak tersisa kecuali pedang buatan Yaman.

Menurut Imam Ibnu Ishaq seorang Imam dalam ilmu sejarah Islam, syuhada perang Mu’tah hanya berjumlah 8 Sahabat saja. Secara terperinci yaitu Ja’far bin Abi Thalib, dan mantan budak Rasulullah shalallahu ‘alaihi wassalam Zaid bin Haritsah al-Kalbi, Mas’ud bin al-Aswad bin Haritsah bin Nadhlah al-‘Adawi, Wahb bin Sa’d bin Abi Sarh radhiyallahu ‘anhum.

Sementara dari kalangan kaum anshar, ‘Abdullah bin Rawahah, ‘Abbad bin Qais al-Khozarjayyan, al-Harits bin an-Nu’man bin Isaf bin Nadhlah an-Najjari, Suraqah bin ‘Amr bin Athiyyah bin Khansa al-Mazini radhiyallahu ‘anhum.

Di sisi lain, Imam Ibnu Hisyam rahimahullah dengan berlandaskan keterangan az-Zuhri rahimahullah, menambahkan empat nama dalam deretan Sahabat Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam yang gugur di medan perang Mu’tah. Yakni, Abu Kulaib dan Jabir. Dua orang ini saudara sekandung. Ditambah ‘Amr bin ‘Amir putra Sa’d bin Tsa’labah bi Malik bin Afsha. Mereka juga berasal dari kaum anshar. Dengan ini, jumlah syuhada bertambah menjadi 12 jiwa.


Spoiler for Sumber

Pertempuran Muhammad disitus Al-Quran.bahagia.us

Sejarah Hidup Muhammad oleh Muhammad Husain Haekal disitus Media.Isnet.org

Majalah As-Sunnah, edisi 7-8/X/1427 H/2006 M, Mabhats: "Misi Kaum Muslimin Menaklukkan Tanah Palestina", hal. 31-33


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"What an excellent slave of Allah: Khalid ibn al-Walid, one of the swords of Allah, unleashed against the unbelievers!"[Prophet Muhammad (SAWS)


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Three months after his arrival at Madinah, Khalid got his chance to show what he could do as a soldier and a commander for the faith which he had just embraced. The Prophet had sent an envoy to the Ghassan 2 Chieftain of Busra, with a letter inviting him to join Islam. While passing through Mutah this envoy was intercepted and killed by a local Ghassan chieftain by the name of Shurahbil bin Amr. This was a heinous crime among the Arabs, for diplomatic envoys held traditional immunity from attack no matter how hostile a power they represented. The news of this outrage inflamed Madinah.

An expedition was immediately prepared to take punitive action against the Ghassan, and the Prophet appointed Zaid bin Harithah as the commander of the force. If he were killed, the command was to be taken over by Jafar bin Abi Talib. If he were killed, the command would devolve upon Abdullah bin Rawahah. Having appointed these officers in the chain of command, the Prophet said, "If all three of these are killed, let the men select a commander from among themselves." 

The expeditionary force consisted of 3,000 men, one of whom was Khalid, serving as a soldier in the ranks. The mission the Prophet gave to Zaid was to seek out and kill the person responsible for the murder of the Muslim envoy, and to offer Islam to the people of Mutah. If they accepted Islam, they were not to be harmed. At the time this force was sent out the Muslims had no knowledge of the enemy strength that they would have to deal with.

Spirits were high as the expeditionary force began its march from Madinah. When the force arrived at Ma'an, reports were received for the first time that Heraclius, the Eastern Roman Emperor, was in Jordan with "100,000 Romans" and had been joined by "100,000 Christian Arabs"-mainly from the Ghassan. The Muslims remained in Ma'an for two days debating their next move. There was a certain amount of hesitation and nervousness. Some suggested that the Prophet be informed of the large strength of the enemy so that he could give them fresh orders on what course of action they should adopt; but Abdullah bin Rawahah (the third?in?command) did not agree with this suggestion, as it would entail unnecessary delay and would give the impression that the Muslims were afraid. He recited a few verses and made a stirring speech to raise the spirits of the men. He concluded by saying, "Men fight not with numbers or weapons but with faith. By going into battle we have a choice of two glorious alternatives: victory and martyrdom."4 This speech dispelled all doubt from the minds of the Muslims, and they promptly resumed their march towards Syria.


The Muslims reached a place near the frontier of Balqa-a district in the east of what is now Jordan-where they made contact with a large force of Christian Arabs. Not finding this place suitable for battle, the Muslim commander withdrew his force to Mutah. The Christian Arabs followed the Muslims, and the two forces again met at Mutah. Both sides now decided to fight. It was the second week of September 29 (the third week of Jamadi-ul-Awwal, 8 Hijri).

Zaid deployed his force in the normal pattern of a centre and two wings. The right wing was commanded by Qutba bin Qatadah and the left wing by Ubaya bin Malik. Zaid himself commanded the centre, and in the centre, too, was Khalid. The battlefield lay to the east of, and stretched up to about a mile from, the present village of Mutah. The ground here was even, but had a slight undulation, and the gentle slope of a low ridge rose behind the Muslims as they faced the Christian Arabs to the north. 5

1. Tirmidhi and Ahmad from Abu Hurayrah, Sahih Al-Jami’ Al-Saghir No. 6776.
2. A large and powerful tribe inhabiting Syria and Jordan.
3. Ibn Sad: p. 636.
4. Ibn Hisham: Vol. 2, p. 375.
5. A new mosque is being built by the Jordanian Government to mark the site of this battle.


The Christian Arabs, who were commanded by Malik bin Zafila, formed themselves into a deep mass confronting the Muslims. Some historians have given their strength as 100,000, while others have doubled that figure. These estimates are clearly mistaken. The enemy probably consisted of between 10 and 15 thousand men. In this battle the Muslims failed to gain a victory. If the enemy had been only twice their strength, they would undoubtedly have thrashed him; and an enemy had to be many times their strength to, inflict a defeat on them. It is largely on this basis that the above estimate of the enemy's strength is made.

The battle began, and both armies very quickly got to grips with each other. This was essentially a battle of guts and stamina rather than military skill. The commander himself fought at the head of his men with his standard, and after a short while Zaid was killed. As the standard fell from his hands, the second?in?command, Jafar, picked it up and continued fighting at the head of the army. After his body had been covered with scores of wounds, Jafar also fell; and the standard went down for the second time. This distressed the Muslims, for Jafar was held in great esteem and affection as a cousin of the Prophet. A certain amount of confusion became noticeable among the Muslims, but soon the third?in?command, Abdullah bin Rawahah, picked up the standard and restored order. He continued to fight until he also was killed.

Now there was real disorder in the ranks of the Muslims. A few of them fled from the scene of battle, but stopped not far from the battlefield. Others continued to offer confused resistance in twos and threes and larger groups. Fortunately the enemy did not press his advantage, for had he done so the Muslims, without a commander, could easily have been routed. Perhaps the gallantry of the Muslim commanders and the valour with which the Muslims had fought made the enemy overcautious and discouraged him from taking bold action.

When Abdullah had fallen, the standard was picked up by Thabit bin Arqam, who raised his voice and shouted, "O Muslims, agree upon a man from among you to be the commander." He then spied Khalid, who stood next to him, and offered him the standard. Khalid was conscious of the fact that as a new convert he did not hold a high position among the Muslims, and Thabit bin Arqam was a Muslim of long standing. This consideration was important. He declined the offer of Thabit, saying: "You are more deserving than I" "Not I," replied Thabit, "and none but you!" 1 This was really a windfall for the Muslims, for they knew of the personal courage and military ability of Khalid. They all agreed to his appointment, and Khalid took the standard and assumed command.

The situation now was serious and could easily have taken a turn for the worse, leading, rapidly to the total defeat of the Muslims. The commanders before Khalid had shown more valour than judgement in fighting this battle. Khalid regained control over his small army and organized it into a neatly deployed fighting force. He was faced with three choices. The first was to withdraw and save the Muslims from destruction, but this might be regarded as a defeat and he would then be blamed for having brought disgrace to Muslim arms. The second was to stay on the defensive and continue fighting; in this case the superior strength of the enemy would eventually tell and the battle end in defeat. The third was to attack and throw the enemy off balance, thus gaining more time in which to study the situation and plan the best course of action. The last choice was closest to the nature of Khalid, and this is the course that he adopted.



The Muslims attacked fiercely along the entire front. They surged forward with Khalid in the lead. The example of Khalid gave fresh courage to the Muslims, and the battle increased in violence. For some time desperate hand?to?hand fighting continued; then Qutba, commanding the Muslim right, dashed forward and killed the Christian commander, Malik, in a duel. This resulted in a setback for the enemy and led to, a certain amount of confusion. The Christian Arabs now pulled back, still fighting, with a view to gaining time for reorganization. At this moment Khalid had his tenth sword in his hand, having broken nine in fierce combat.

1. Ibn Sad: p. 638.

As the Christian Arabs stepped back, Khalid restrained the Muslims and broke contact, pulling his force back a short distance. The two armies now faced each other out of bow range, both seeking time to rest and reorganize. This last round of the battle had ended in favour of the Muslims of whom so far only 12 had been killed. There is no record of enemy casualties but they must have been considerable, for each of the Muslim commanders before Khalid was a brave and skilful fighter and the nine swords that Khalid broke were broken on the bodies of Christian Arabs. The situation, however, offered no further prospect of success. Khalid had averted a shameful and bloody defeat and saved the Muslims from disgrace and disaster; he could do no more. That night Khalid withdrew his army from Mutah and began his return journey to Madinah.

The news of the return of the expedition preceded it at Madinah, and the Prophet and those Muslims who had remained in Madinah set out to meet the returning soldiers. The Muslims were in an ugly temper, for never since the Battle of Uhud had a Muslim force broken contact with the enemy and left him in possession of the battlefield. As the army arrived among the Muslims, they began to throw dust into the faces of the soldiers.

"O you who have fled!" they cried. "You have fled from the way of Allah." The Prophet restrained them and said, "They have not fled. They shall return to fight, if Allah wills it."  Then the Prophet raised his voice and shouted, "Khalid is the Sword of Allah." 

Later the resentment against Khalid died down, and the Muslims realised the wisdom, judgement and courage which he had shown in the Battle of Mutah. And the name stuck to Khalid. He now became known as Saifullah, i.e. Sword of Allah. When the Prophet gave Khalid this title, he virtually guaranteed his success in future battles.

Some historians have described the battle of Mutah as a victory for the Muslims; others have called it a defeat. As a matter of fact it was neither. It was a drawn battle; but drawn in favour of the Christians, for the Muslims withdrew from the battlefield and left it in possession of their opponents. It was not a big battle; it was not even a very important one. But it gave Khalid an opportunity to show his skill as an independent commander; and it gained him the title of the Sword of Allah.

Spoiler for From

1. Ibn Hisham: Vol. 2, p. 382.
2. Waqidi: Maghazi, p. 322.
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Fact about The Battle Of Muta:

1. Perang ini terjadi pada tahun 8 Hijriyah
2. Perang ini terjadi antara Pasukan Islam dan Pasukan Kerajaan Romawi
3. Pasukan Islam berjumlah 3000 orang dan Pasukan Kerajaan Romawi berjumlah 100 ribu orang ditambah 100 ribu orang lagi dari orang-orang nasrani Syiria. Dengan kata lain, 3000 orang Islam melawan 200 ribu Pasukan Kafir Romawi beserta orang-orang nasrani Syiria.
4. Pasukan Islam dipimpin oleh Zaid bin Haritsah yang kemudian tebunuh. Ja'far bin Abu Thalib (saudaranya Ali bin Abu Thalib) menggantikannya namun terbunuh. Kemudian Panglima Perang diambil alih oleh Khalid bin Walid (setelah ia masuk Islam) dan mengubah strategi perlawanan sehingga Pasukan Islam dapat meloloskan diri dari pengepungan yang dilakukan oleh Pasukan Kerajaan Romawi.
5. Khalid bin Walid mendapat julukan Syaifullah (pedang Allah) dan dipuji oleh Rasullah karena kepandaian dan keberaniannya dalam peperangan
6. Perang ini terjadi di daerah Mu'tah (masih wilayah kekuasan Romawi)
7. Perang pertama antara Arab melawan Romawi atau dengan kata lain perang pertama antara Kaum Muslimin melawan Pasukan Kerajaan Romawi
8. Penyebab perang ini adalah orang-orang nasrani Syiria membunuh para utusan Rasulullah yang ditugaskan Rasulullah berdakwah kepada raja kecil di Damaskus wilayah Kerajaan Romawi. Pada waktu itu dan hingga sekarang, membunuh para utusan dari kerajaan atau negara diartikan mengajak perang.


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From : Mufidfathul

The Battle of Mootah

IN 629 THE CHRISTIAN ARAB TRIBE OF GHASSAN was ruled by Shorhail, a prince who was a vassal of the Byzantine emperor. He was one of those rulers who had received letters from Muhammad Mustafa inviting them to accept Islam. In those days he held court in Mootah, a town east of the Dead Sea. When the Prophet's emissary, Harith bin Umayr, arrived at his court bearing the letter for him, he ordered his execution.

The murder of Harith bin Umayr was an unprovoked outrage, and the killing of an ambassador is considered an unpardonable crime in many nations. The Prophet decided to take punitive action. He equipped an army of 3000 men, and sent it under the command of his friend and freedman, Zayd bin Haritha, to Mootah, to demand reparations. At the same time, he designated a chain of command and responsibility. In the event of Zayd's death, the command of the army was to pass on to Jaafer ibn Abi Talib. If he too were to be killed, then the third general was to be Abdullah ibn Rawaha.
When Shorhail heard that an army was approaching his capital from Medina, he also mobilized his men, and was soon ready to meet it. He deployed his troops on the south-side, out of the walls of Mootah. They were composed of the Roman garrison of Mootah, and the freshly raised tribal levies. When the Muslims arrived and took stock of the situation, they realized that it was going to be an unequal fight as they were heavily outnumbered by the enemy.

The Muslim leaders held a war council. Zayd bin Haritha proposed that they immediately send a messenger to the Prophet apprising him of the imbalance in the strength of the two forces, and requesting him to send reinforcements. But Abdullah bin Rawaha opposed him, and said that the decision to fight or not to fight did not rest upon their numbers, and if they were outnumbered by the enemy, it was immaterial for them. "We fight to win the crown of martyrdom, and not the laurels of victory, and here is our chance; let us not miss it," he said. Abdullah bin Rawaha clinched the debate with his powerful argument, and the Muslims advanced to meet the enemy. At the very first clash of arms, Zayd bin Haritha, the first general of the Muslims, was killed.

Betty Kelen
Zayd took the Apostle's standard and was killed almost at once, the first Muslim to die for the faith on foreign soil. (Mohammed, Messenger of God)

The command of the army then passed to Jaafer ibn Abi Talib, the elder brother of Ali. He fought most gallantly and for a long time, killing so many of the enemy that their bodies were stacked like cordwood all around him. But then a Roman soldier crept up from behind, unseen, and struck a blow with his sword at his right arm, and severed it. Jaafer didn't let the banner fall, and kept pressing the enemy. A little later, another Roman came from behind, and with a blow of his sword, cut his left arm also. The hero, still undismayed, held the banner under his chin, and kept advancing. But with both arms gone, he was unable to defend himself, and in a few moments, a third Roman approached him, and killed him with a blow of his mace on his head. After Jaafer's death, Abdullah bin Rawaha took charge of the army, and he too fell fighting against heavy odds.

Washington Irving
Among the different missions which Mohammed had sent beyond the bounds of Arabia to invite neighboring princes to accept Islam, was one to the governor of Bosra, the great mart on the confines of Syria. His envoy was killed at Mootah by an Arab of the Christian tribe of Ghassan, and son to Shorhail, an emir, who governed Mootah in the name of Heraclius.

Mohammed sent an army of 3000 against the offending city. It was a momentous expedition, as it might, for the first time, bring the arms of Islam in collision with those of the Roman Empire. The command was entrusted to Zaid, his freedman. Several chosen officers were associated with him. One was Mohammed's cousin, Jaafer, the same who, by his eloquence, had vindicated the doctrines of Islam before the king of Abyssinia, and defeated the Koreishite embassy. He was now in the prime of life, and noted for great courage and manly beauty. (The Life of Mohammed)

As Jaafer charged the enemy, he sang a song. Sir William Muir has given the following translation of his song:

Paradise! O Paradise! How fair a resting place!
Cold is the water there, and sweet the shade.
Rome, Rome! Thine hour of tribulation draweth nigh.
When I close with her, I will hurl her to the ground.

When Jaafer was killed, his body was brought into the camp. Abdullah bin Umar bin al-Khattab, who was with the army, says that he counted the wounds on the hero's body, and found more than fifty of them, and they were all in front. Jaafer had dared sword and spear even after the loss of his arms, but had not flinched.

When all three generals appointed by the Prophet had been killed, the Muslims were left leaderless for a time. Then Khalid bin al-Walid who was also fighting in the ranks, seized the banner, and managed to rally the Muslims. At night the armies disengaged, and this gave him the opportunity to reorganize his men. He is said to have fought a defensive action on the following day but realizing that it was impossible to win a victory, ordered a retreat from Mootah, and succeeded in bringing the remnants of the army back to Medina.

When these warriors entered Medina, they got a "reception" that must have made them forget the "reception" that the Romans gave them in Mootah. They were greeted by jeering crowds which cast dust in their faces and garbage on their heads, and taunted them for fleeing from the enemy instead of dying like men if not like heroes. Eventually, the Prophet himself was compelled to intervene on their behalf to rescue them from indignity and molestation.

Sir William Muir
The ranks of the Muslims were already broken; and the Romans in full pursuit made great havoc among the fugitives. So, distinctly, in the secretary of Wackidi. Some accounts pretend that Khalid rallied the army, and either turned the day against the Romans, or made it a drawn battle. But besides that the brevity of all the accounts is proof enough of a reverse, the reception of the army on its return to Medina, admits of only one conclusion, viz. a complete, ignominious, and unretrieved discomfiture. (The Life of Mohammed, London, 1861)

Sir John Glubb
In the battle of Mootah, Jaafer ibn Abu Talib, the brother of Ali, seized the banner from the dying Zaid and raised it aloft once more. The enemy closed in on the heroic Jaafer, who was soon covered with wounds. Tradition relates that when both his hands were cut off gripping the banner, he still stood firm, holding the staff between his two stumps, until a Byzantine soldier struck him a mortal blow.

When the defeated Muslims approached Medina, the Prophet and the people of the town went out to meet them. The citizens began to throw dirt at the crestfallen warriors, crying, 
"You runaways, you fled from the way of God!"
But Mohammed, with that kind paternalism which he knew well how to use, interposed on their behalf.
Next morning in the mosque, the Prophet announced that he had, in a vision, seen the martyrs of Mootah in Paradise, reclining upon couches, but Jaafer was there in the guise of an angel with two wings, stained on their feathers with the blood of martyrdom. It was as a result of this vision that the martyr has since been known as Jaafer the Flyer, Jaafer at-Tayyar. (The Great Arab Conquests)

Betty Kelen
When the army came riding home, he (Mohammed) went out to meet them, Jafer's son on the saddle before him. It was a terrible homecoming for these men who had returned from battle alive, following Khalid, while the Prophet's own relatives and beloved companions had fallen. The people of Medina picked up sand and dirt along the way to throw at the returning force, shouting, "Cowards! Runaways! You fled from God." (Muhammad, the Messenger of God)

Some Muslim historians have made desperate efforts to "prove" that Mootah was a Muslim victory which it was not. It is not clear why a defeat is being dished out by them as a victory. The attempt to prove that Muslims won the battle, may have been prompted by their desire to present the Muslim soldiers as invincible. But will they smother truth merely to prove that Muslims were invincible. After all, the Muslims were defeated in the battle of Uhud!

Abul Kalam Azad, the Indian biographer of the Prophet, says that the Muslims inflicted a crushing defeat upon the Romans at Mootah. He takes notice of the reception that the citizens of Medina gave to the "victors" when they came home, but he attributes it to their "ignorance," and says that they had received wrong reports of the outcome of the battle.

But if the citizens had received wrong reports, then it is curious that no one among the warriors tried to correct them. No one among them, for example, said to the citizens: "Is this your way of welcoming the heroes of Islam, with dirt and garbage? Do you reward the defenders of the Faith by booing them and insulting them?" But they did not pose any such questions.

Even if the citizens of Medina had been misinformed that the Muslims were defeated at Mootah, as Azad claims, then how long it ought to take them to learn the truth? In the first place, the soldiers themselves did not protest when the citizens covered them with garbage, as already noted. In the second place, some among them were too embarrassed to go out of their homes. They did not want to be seen in public for fear of being upbraided or even rough-handled by the citizens for the abject cowardice they had shown before the enemy. Their greatest desire was to hide themselves from everyone else.

D. S. Margoliouth
The survivors of this disastrous fight (Mootah) were greeted by the Moslems as deserters, and some were even afraid to appear in public for some time. Such Spartans had the people of Medina become in their eight years of warfare. (Mohammed and the Rise of Islam, 1931)

Muhammad Husayn Haykal
As soon as Khalid and the army reached Medinah, Muhammad and the Muslims went out to meet them, Muhammad carrying on his arm, Abdullah, the son of Ja'far, the second commander of the Muslim force. Upon learning the news, the people flung dust in the face of the Muslim soldiers and accused them of fleeing in the face of the enemy and abandoning the cause of God. The Prophet of God argued with his people that the soldiers did not flee but simply withdrew in order, with God's will, to advance again. Despite this justification on the part of Muhammad of the Muslim army, the people were not willing to forgive them their withdrawal and return. Salamah ibn Hisham, a member of this expedition, would neither go to the mosque for prayer nor show himself in public in order to avoid being chastised for fleeing from the cause of God. Were it not for the fact that these same men, especially Khalid ibn al-Walid, later distinguished themselves in battle against the same enemy, their reputations would have remained forever stained. (The Life of Muhammad, Cairo, 1935)

Another "proof" that Abul Kalam Azad has found of the "victory" of the Muslims at Mootah, is that the Romans did not pursue them. He says that if the Romans had won the battle of Mootah, they would have pursued the Muslims to the gates of Medina itself, and beyond.

But the Romans might have had other reasons for not pursuing the Muslims. One of them was that with their cavalry, they could not maneuver in the desert. The desert to them was like the sea, and neither they nor the Persians had any "ships" in which to "navigate" in it. The best they could do, was to operate on the "shores" as "land-powers" which they, in fact, were, and at a decided disadvantage strategically and tactically against a "maritime" nation like the Arabs
If the Arabs retreated into the desert before an active foe, their safety was assured. He was simply not equipped to penetrate the desert. The logistical problems alone of attacking them in their own element discouraged the most enterprising spirits of those days. The desert was the "fortress" which protected the Arabs from the ambitions of all the conquerors of the past, and guaranteed their freedom and independence.

Sir John Glubb
The key to all the early operations, against Persia and against Syria alike, is that the Persians and Byzantines could not move in the desert, being mounted on horses. The Muslims were like a sea-power, cruising offshore in their ships, whereas the Persians and Byzantines alike could only take up positions on the shore (that is, the cultivated area) unable to launch out to "sea" and engage the enemy in his own desert element. Similarly the Arabs, like the Norse or Danish pirates who raided England, were at first afraid to move inland far from their "ships." Raiding the areas on the "shores" of the desert, they hastened back to their own element when danger threatened. (The Great Arab Conquests, 1963)

Joel Carmichael
There is a remarkable resemblance between the strategy of the Bedouin and that of the modern sea power. Viewed from the vantage point of nomads, the desert, which only they could make use of, was like a vast ocean on which they controlled the only vessels. The Bedouin could use it for supplies and communications - and as a haven when defeated. They could appear from its depths whenever they wished and slip back again at will. This gave them enormous mobility and resilience, as long as they were moving against sedentary communities (Shaping of the Arabs, 1967)

The battle was fought just outside Mootah. If the Arabs had defeated the Romans and had routed them, then what did they do with the city which lay at their feet? As conquerors they ought to have occupied it. But no historian has claimed that the Muslims entered Mootah and occupied it.
The Arabs were notorious for their love of booty. This is a fact well-known to every student of their history, and historians like Abul Kalam Azad cannot be ignorant of it. The same historian says that the number of the Romans and their allies who fought at Mootah was two hundred thousand. If the Muslims had defeated the Romans, then they ought to have captured thousands of Romans, and they ought to have returned to Medina laden with plunder and the treasures of Mootah. But they did not. The annals are silent on this point. There is no reference to any booty or to any prisoners of war in the accounts of the battle of Mootah. This silence is the most eloquent proof that the Muslims were not the victors. Actually, they considered themselves lucky to have escaped alive from the battlefield.

Muhammad Husayn Haykal
After the campaign of Mootah, the Muslim army led by Khalid ibn al Walid returned to Medinah neither victorious nor vanquished, but happy to be able to return at all. (The Life of Muhammad, Cairo, 1935)

We admire those Muslims who were aware that they had shown cowardice in the battle of Mootah, and were ashamed of it. But there were other Muslims, some of them companions of the Prophet, who fled from battle, not once, but several times, and they were not ashamed of their performance. One may admire them for their brazenness though. To save their own dear lives, they could flee from a battlefield, and then return to it when the scales tilted in favor of the Muslims.

The battle of Mootah was a defeat for the Muslims. As for the Romans, it was nothing more than a minor border skirmish. They drove the Arabs back into the desert, and for them the incident was closed.
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